Table of Contents

Foreword 2
Introduction 3
A Global Village 5
Population 27
Rich and Poor 52
Resources 81
Aid 114




Our schools strive to provide all students with opportunities to succeed in challenging educational programs. To support this goal and to illustrate examples of promising and best practices, our talented and creative teachers and administrators develop local resources for the use of teachers and students.

I hope that teachers will find the materials in this document to be helpful and relevant in their instructional planning, classroom management and decision making.

I extend my appreciation and the gratitude of the Board of School Trustees to Kevin Benoy, Sal Audia, Ray Bodnaruk, and Jennifer Murray. With the leadership and support of Cathy Molinski, District Principal and Audrey Hobbs-Johnson, Director of Program and Extension Services; who provided their expertise and exemplary efforts in preparing this timely instructional resource.

Dr. Robin Brayne, Superintendent of Schools


Introduction to the e-text, Social Studies 11


Social Studies 11 teachers have long felt frustrated at the lack of up-to-date textbook resources. This is particularly so in regard to the Geography module of the course. The subject matter is the world today, yet our last base text, Stewart Dunlop's Towards Tomorrow; Canada in a Changing World; Geography was already 13 years old as the year 2000 began. Our problem was compounded by a lack of good replacements on the market. Dunlop's work was excellent, but it was too dated to continue using. Even were there a good text available, high book costs would force us to continue using whatever resource we purchased until it was as long in the tooth as Dunlop.

District Social Studies department heads discussed the matter and decided to compile a replacement work ourselves. We agreed to use a framework that was quite similar to Dunlop's to minimally disrupt existing teaching strategies. Our concept went well beyond just another paper resource, however. The text would be maintained electronically and updated regularly. Schools could adapt the text to their own needs by adding or subtracting material or changing questions before reprinting their own, customized, product. A CD version could also be made available to teachers and students, complete with hyperlinks, allowing them to extend their knowledge by linking to web pages with the click of a button.

District department heads approved the project. Cathy Molinski shepherded the project through school board and the Joint Educational Planning and Implementation Committee, and secured funding for the project. A writing team was formed and the work that you see in front of you is the outcome of the project. This is not, however, a final product. This is an ongoing project that will continue to evolve and improve over time.

A huge voluntary time commitment, in addition to 5 paid writing days meant that the paperback version of the text could be produced at a fraction of the cost of a traditional textbook. The cost of CD's is negligible. It is our hope that quite current material will be available to students at all times and not just at the start of a 10-15 year textbook cycle. As the 1999-2000 school year came to a close a team of three experienced teachers and a student teacher was formed and writing commenced. The first edition was completed in the last weeks of August, 2000.

The writers expect that continued input from students and teachers will enable us to improve this work annually. Suggestions should be submitted, by e-mail to or by snail-mail to Sal Audia at Handsworth Secondary School or Kevin Benoy at Sutherland Secondary.


Technical Details:

Paperback Version:  The printed version of this text is fairly conventional and was prepared in Microsoft Word. Where text is hyperlinked in the CD and electronic versions, the URL's have been printed in parentheses. Since networked computers in school labs will not allow hyperlinking, this will also allow students to connect with web sources by manually inputting the URL.

CD and Electronic Versions:  These versions have more flexibility than their print cousin.

For the General Reader:

For Teachers:

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